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Enhanced artemisinin yield by expression of rol genes in Artemisia annua

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, October 2015
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Enhanced artemisinin yield by expression of rol genes in Artemisia annua
Published in
Malaria Journal, October 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-0951-5
Pubmed ID

Erum Dilshad, Rosa Maria Cusido, Javier Palazon, Karla Ramirez Estrada, Mercedes Bonfill, Bushra Mirza


Despite of many advances in the treatment of malaria, it is still the fifth most prevalent disease worldwide and is one of the major causes of death in the developing countries which accounted for 584,000 deaths in 2013, as estimated by World Health Organization. Artemisinin from Artemisia annua is still one of the most effective treatments for malaria. Increasing the artemisinin content of A. annua plants by genetic engineering would improve the availability of this much-needed drug. In this regard, a high artemisinin-yielding hybrid of A. annua produced by the centre for novel agricultural products of the University of York, UK, was selected (artemisinin maximally 1.4 %). As rol genes are potential candidates of biochemical engineering, genetic transformation of A. annua with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harbouring vectors with rol B and rol C genes was carried out with the objective of enhancement of artemisinin content. Transgenic lines produced were analysed by the LC-MS for quantitative analysis of artemisinin and analogues. These high artemisinin yielding transgenics were also analysed by real time quantitative PCR to find the molecular dynamics of artemisinin enhancement. Genes of artemisinin biosynthetic pathway were studied including amorphadiene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450, (CYP71AV1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1). Trichome-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1(TAFR1) is an enzyme involved in both trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and both processes are important for artemisinin biosynthesis. Thus, real time qPCR analysis of the TAFR1 gene was carried out, and trichome density was determined. Transgenics of rol B gene showed two- to ninefold (the decimal adds nothing in the abstract, please simplify to two- to ninefold) increase in artemisinin, 4-12-fold increase in artesunate and 1.2-3-fold increase in dihydroartemisinin. Whereas in the case of rol C gene transformants, a fourfold increase in artemisinin, four to ninefold increase in artesunate and one- to twofold increase in dihydroartemisinin concentration was observed. Transformants with the rol B gene had higher expression of these genes than rol C transformants. TAFR1 was also found to be more expressed in rol gene transgenics than wild type A. annua, which was also in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plant. Thus it was proved that rol B and rol C genes are effective in the enhancement of artemisinin content of A. annua, rol B gene being more active to play part in this enhancement than rol C gene.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 75 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Serbia 1 1%
Unknown 74 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 17 23%
Student > Master 9 12%
Student > Bachelor 8 11%
Researcher 8 11%
Other 4 5%
Other 8 11%
Unknown 21 28%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 19 25%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 17 23%
Medicine and Dentistry 4 5%
Social Sciences 4 5%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 3 4%
Other 4 5%
Unknown 24 32%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 July 2016.
All research outputs
of 22,831,537 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
of 5,572 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 284,657 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
of 158 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,831,537 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 32nd percentile – i.e., 32% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 5,572 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.8. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 284,657 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 41st percentile – i.e., 41% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 158 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 26th percentile – i.e., 26% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.