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Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants

Overview of attention for article published in The Lancet, April 2016
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Title
Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants
Published in
The Lancet, April 2016
DOI 10.1016/s0140-6736(16)30054-x
Pubmed ID
Authors

, , Di Cesare, Mariachiara, Bentham, James, Stevens, Gretchen A, Zhou, Bin, Danaei, Goodarz, Lu, Yuan, Bixby, Honor, Cowan, Melanie J, Riley, Leanne M, Hajifathalian, Kaveh, Fortunato, Léa, Taddei, Cristina, Bennett, James E, Ikeda, Nayu, Khang, Young-Ho, Kyobutungi, Catherine, Laxmaiah, Avula, Li, Yanping, Lin, Hsien-Ho, Miranda, J Jaime, Mostafa, Aya, Turley, Maria L, Paciorek, Christopher J, Gunter, Marc, Ezzati, Majid, Di Cesare, M, Bentham, J, Stevens, GA, Zhou, B, Danaei, G, Lu, Y, Bixby, H, Cowan, MJ, Riley, LM, Hajifathalian, K, Fortunato, L, Taddei, C, Bennett, JE, Ikeda, N, Khang, YH, Kyobutungi, C, Laxmaiah, A, Li, YP, Lin, HH, Miranda, JJ, Mostafa, A, Turley, ML, Paciorek, CJ, Gunter, M, Ezzati, M, Abdeen, ZA, Hamid, ZA, Abu-Rmeileh, NM, Acosta-Cazares, B, Adams, R, Aekplakorn, W, Aguilar-Salinas, CA, Ahmadvand, A, Ahrens, W, Ali, MM, Alkerwi, A, Alvarez-Pedrerol, M, Aly, E, Amouyel, P, Amuzu, A, Andersen, LB, Anderssen, SA, Andrade, DS, Anjana, RM, Aounallah-Skhiri, H, Ariansen, I, Aris, T, Arlappa, N, Arveiler, D, Assah, FK, Avdicova, M, Azizi, F, Babu, BV, Balakrishna, N, Bandosz, P, Banegas, JR, Barbagallo, CM, Barcelo, A, Barkat, A, Barros, MV, Bata, I, Batieha, AM, Batista, RL, Baur, LA, Beaglehole, R, Ben Romdhane, H, Benet, M, Bernabe-Ortiz, A, Bernotiene, G, Bettiol, H, Bhagyalaxmi, A, Bharadwaj, S, Bhargava, SK, Bhatti, Z, Bhutta, ZA, Bi, HS, Bi, YF, Bjerregaard, P, Bjertness, E, Bjertness, MB, Bjorkelund, C, Blake, M, Blokstra, A, Bo, S, Bobak, M, Boddy, LM, Boehm, BO, Boeing, H, Boissonnet, CP, Bongard, V, Bovet, P, Braeckman, Lutgart, Bragt, MCE, Brajkovich, I, Branca, F, Breckenkamp, J, Brenner, H, Brewster, LM, Brian, GR, Bruno, G, Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB, Bugge, A, Burns, C, de Leon, AC, Cacciottolo, J, Cama, T, Cameron, C, Camolas, J, Can, G, Candido, APC, Capuano, V, Cardoso, VC, Carvalho, MJ, Casanueva, FF, Casas, JP, Caserta, CA, Castetbon, K, Chamukuttan, S, Chan, AW, Chan, Q, Chaturvedi, HK, Chaturvedi, N, Chen, CJ, Chen, FF, Chen, HS, Chen, SH, Chen, ZM, Cheng, CY, Chetrit, A, Chiolero, A, Chiou, ST, Chirita-Emandi, A, Cho, Y, Christensen, K, Chudek, J, Cifkova, R, Claessens, F, Clays, Els, Concin, H, Cooper, C, Cooper, R, Coppinger, TC, Costanzo, S, Cottel, D, Cowell, C, Craig, CL, Crujeiras, AB, D'Arrigo, G, d'Orsi, E, Dallongeville, J, Damasceno, A, Damsgaard, CT, Dankner, R, Dauchet, L, De Backer, Gui, De Bacquer, Dirk, de Gaetano, G, De Henauw, Stefaan, De Smedt, Delphine, Deepa, M, Deev, AD, Dehghan, A, Delisle, H, Delpeuch, F, Dhana, K, Di Castelnuovo, AF, Dias-da-Costa, JS, Diaz, A, Djalalinia, S, Do, HTP, Dobson, AJ, Donfrancesco, C, Doring, A, Doua, K, Drygas, W, Egbagbe, EE, Eggertsen, R, Ekelund, U, El Ati, J, Elliott, P, Engle-Stone, R, Erasmus, RT, Erem, C, Eriksen, L, Escobedo-de la Pena, J, Evans, A, Faeh, D, Fall, CH, Farzadfar, F, Felix-Redondo, FJ, Ferguson, TS, Fernandez-Berges, D, Ferrante, D, Ferrari, M, Ferreccio, C, Ferrieres, J, Finn, JD, Fischer, K, Flores, EM, Foger, B, Foo, LH, Forslund, AS, Fortmann, SP, Fouad, HM, Francis, DK, Franco, MD, Franco, OH, Frontera, G, Fuchs, FD, Fuchs, SC, Fujita, Y, Furusawa, T, Gaciong, Z, Gafencu, M, Gareta, D, Garnett, SP, Gaspoz, JM, Gasull, M, Gates, L, Geleijnse, JM, Ghasemian, A, Giampaoli, S, Gianfagna, F, Giovannelli, J, Giwercman, A, Goldsmith, RA, Gross, MG, Rivas, JPG, Gorbea, MB, Gottrand, F, -Iversen, SG, Grafnetter, D, Grajda, A, Grammatikopoulou, MG, Gregor, RD, Grodzicki, T, Grontved, A, Gruden, G, Grujic, V, Gu, DF, Guan, OP, Gudnason, V, Guerrero, R, Guessous, I, Guimaraes, AL, Gulliford, MC, Gunnlaugsdottir, J, Guo, XH, Guo, Y, Gupta, PC, Gureje, O, Gurzkowska, B, Gutierrez, L, Gutzwiller, F, Halkjaer, J, Hardy, R, Kumar, RH, Hayes, AJ, He, J, Hendriks, ME, Cadena, LH, Heshmat, R, Hihtaniemi, IT, Ho, SY, Ho, SC, Hobbs, M, Hofman, A, Hormiga, CM, Horta, BL, Houti, L, Htay, TT, Htet, AS, Htike, MMT, Hu, YH, Hussieni, AS, Huu, CN, Huybrechts, I, Hwalla, N, Iacoviello, L, Iannone, AG, Ibrahim, MM, Ikram, MA, Irazola, VE, Islam, M, Iwasaki, M, Jackson, RT, Jacobs, JM, Jafar, T, Jamil, KM, Jamrozik, K, Jasienska, G, Jiang, CQ, Joffres, M, Johansson, M, Jonas, JB, Jorgensen, T, Joshi, P, Juolevi, A, Jurak, G, Juresa, V, Kaaks, R, Kafatos, A, Kalter-Leibovici, O, Kapantais, E, Kasaeian, A, Katz, J, Kaur, P, Kavousi, M, Keil, U, Boker, LK, Kelishadi, R, Kemper, HHCG, Kengne, AP, Kersting, M, Key, T, Khader, YS, Khalili, D, Khaw, KTH, Khouw, IMSL, Kiechl, S, Killewo, J, Kim, J, Kiyohara, Y, Klimont, J, Kolle, E, Kolsteren, Patrick, Korrovits, P, Koskinen, S, Kouda, K, Koziel, S, Kratzer, W, Krokstad, S, Kromhout, D, Kruger, HS, Kula, K, Kulaga, Z, Kumar, RK, Kusuma, YS, Kuulasmaa, K, Laamiri, FZ, Laatikainen, T, Lachat, Carl, Laid, Y, Lam, TH, Landrove, O, Lanska, V, Lappas, G, Laugsand, LE, Bao, KLN, Le, TD, Leclercq, C, Lee, J, Lehtimaki, T, Lekhraj, R, Leon-Munoz, LM, Lim, WY, Lima-Costa, MF, Lin, X, Linneberg, A, Lissner, L, Litwin, M, Liu, J, Lorbeer, R, Lotufo, PA, Lozano, JE, Luksiene, D, Lundqvist, A, Lunet, N, Lytsy, P, Ma, GS, Machi, S, Maggi, S, Magliano, DJ, Makdisse, M, Malekzadeh, R, Malhotra, R, Rao, KM, Manios, Y, Mann, JI, Manzato, E, Margozzini, P, Markey, O, Marques-Vidal, P, Marrugat, J, Martin-Prevel, Y, Martorell, R, Masoodi, SR, Matsha, TE, Mazur, A, Mbanya, JCN, McFarlane, SR, McGarvey, ST, McKee, M, McLachlan, S, McLean, RM, McNulty, BA, Yusof, SM, Mediene-Benchekor, S, Meirhaeghe, A, Meisinger, C, Mendes, LL, Menezes, AMB, Mensink, GBM, Meshram, II, Metspalu, A, Mi, J, Michaelsen, KF, Mikkel, K, Miller, JC, Miquel, JF, Misigoj-Durakovic, M, Mohamed, MK, Mohammad, K, Mohammadifard, N, Mohan, V, Yusoff, MFM, Molbo, D, Moller, NC, Molnar, D, Mondo, CK, Monterrubio, EA, Monyeki, KDK, Moreira, LB, Morejon, A, Moreno, LA, Morgan, K, Mortensen, EL, Moschonis, G, Mossakowska, M, Mota, J, Motlagh, ME, Motta, J, Mu, TT, Muiesan, ML, Muller-Nurasyid, M, Murphy, N, Mursu, J, Murtagh, EM, Musa, KI, Musil, V, Nagel, G, Nakamura, H, Namesna, J, Nang, EEK, Nangia, 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Reganit, PFM, Ribeiro, R, Riboli, E, Rigo, F, de Wit, TFR, Ritti-Dias, RM, Rivera, JA, Robinson, SM, Robitaille, C, Rodriguez-Artalejo, F, Rodriguez-Perez, MD, Rodriguez-Villamizar, LA, Rojas-Martinez, R, Rojroongwasinkul, N, Romaguera, D, Ronkainen, K, Rosengren, A, Rouse, I, Rubinstein, A, Ruhli, FJ, Rui, O, Ruiz-Betancourt, BS, Horimoto, ARVR, Rutkowski, M, Sabanayagam, C, Sachdev, HS, Saidi, O, Salanave, B, Martinez, ES, Salomaa, V, Salonen, JT, Salvetti, M, Sanchez-Abanto, J, Sandjaja, s, Sans, S, Santos, DA, Santos, O, dos Santos, RN, Santos, R, Sardinha, LB, Sarrafzadegan, N, Saum, KU, Savva, SC, Scazufca, M, Rosario, AS, Schargrodsky, H, Schienkiewitz, A, Schmidt, IM, Schneider, IJ, Schultsz, C, Schutte, AE, Sein, AA, Senbanjo, IO, Sepanlou, SG, Shalnova, SA, Shaw, JE, Shibuya, K, Shin, YC, Shiri, R, Siantar, R, Sibai, AM, Silva, AM, Silva, DAS, Simon, M, Simons, J, Simons, LA, Sjostrom, M, Slowikowska-Hilczer, J, Slusarczyk, P, Smeeth, L, Smith, MC, Snijder, MB, So, HK, 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Abstract

Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries. We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18·5 kg/m(2) [underweight], 18·5 kg/m(2) to <20 kg/m(2), 20 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2), 25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2), 30 kg/m(2) to <35 kg/m(2), 35 kg/m(2) to <40 kg/m(2), ≥40 kg/m(2) [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue. We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21·7 kg/m(2) (95% credible interval 21·3-22·1) in 1975 to 24·2 kg/m(2) (24·0-24·4) in 2014 in men, and from 22·1 kg/m(2) (21·7-22·5) in 1975 to 24·4 kg/m(2) (24·2-24·6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21·4 kg/m(2) in central Africa and south Asia to 29·2 kg/m(2) (28·6-29·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21·8 kg/m(2) (21·4-22·3) in south Asia to 32·2 kg/m(2) (31·5-32·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13·8% (10·5-17·4) to 8·8% (7·4-10·3) in men and from 14·6% (11·6-17·9) to 9·7% (8·3-11·1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23·4% (17·8-29·2) in men and 24·0% (18·9-29·3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3·2% (2·4-4·1) in 1975 to 10·8% (9·7-12·0) in 2014 in men, and from 6·4% (5·1-7·8) to 14·9% (13·6-16·1) in women. 2·3% (2·0-2·7) of the world's men and 5·0% (4·4-5·6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI ≥35 kg/m(2)). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0·64% (0·46-0·86) in men and 1·6% (1·3-1·9) in women. If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world's poorest regions, especially in south Asia. Wellcome Trust, Grand Challenges Canada.

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Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Spain 10 3%
United Kingdom 4 1%
Brazil 3 <1%
United States 3 <1%
Germany 2 <1%
Switzerland 2 <1%
South Africa 1 <1%
Denmark 1 <1%
Guatemala 1 <1%
Other 4 1%
Unknown 343 92%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 69 18%
Researcher 61 16%
Student > Master 58 16%
Student > Bachelor 31 8%
Other 30 8%
Other 125 33%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 135 36%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 46 12%
Unspecified 45 12%
Nursing and Health Professions 24 6%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 21 6%
Other 103 28%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2851. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 August 2017.
All research outputs
#113
of 8,220,922 outputs
Outputs from The Lancet
#5
of 24,254 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#7
of 278,514 outputs
Outputs of similar age from The Lancet
#1
of 531 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,220,922 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 24,254 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 26.6. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 531 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.