Tuberculosis and malnutrition are linked in a complex relationship. Tuberculosis may cause undernutrition through increased metabolic demands and decreased intake, and nutritional deficiencies may worsen the disease, or delay recovery by depressing important immune functions. At present, there is no evidence-based nutritional guidance for adults and children being treated for tuberculosis.
To assess the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis.
We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2016), MEDLINE (from 1946 to 4 February 2016), EMBASE (from 1980 to 4 February 2016), LILACS (from 1982 to 4 February 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis up to 4 February 2016, and checked the reference lists of all included studies.
Randomized controlled trials that compared any oral nutritional supplement given for at least four weeks with no nutritional intervention, placebo, or dietary advice only for people being treated for active tuberculosis. The primary outcomes of interest were all-cause death, and cure at six and 12 months.
Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We presented the results as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, and mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where appropriate, we pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.
Thirty-five trials, including 8283 participants, met the inclusion criteria of this review. Macronutrient supplementationSix trials assessed the provision of free food, or high-energy supplements. Only two trials measured total dietary intake, and in both trials the intervention increased calorie consumption compared to controls.The available trials were too small to reliably prove or exclude clinically important benefits on mortality (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.20; four trials, 567 participants, very low quality evidence), cure (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.41; one trial, 102 participants, very low quality evidence), or treatment completion (data not pooled; two trials, 365 participants, very low quality evidence).Supplementation probably produces a modest increase in weight gain during treatment for active tuberculosis, although this was not seen consistently across all trials (data not pooled; five trials, 883 participants, moderate quality evidence). Two small studies provide some evidence that quality of life may also be improved but the trials were too small to have much confidence in the result (data not pooled; two trials, 134 participants, low quality evidence). Micronutrient supplementationSix trials assessed multi-micronutrient supplementation in doses up to 10 times the dietary reference intake, and 18 trials assessed single or dual micronutrient supplementation.Routine multi-micronutrient supplementation may have little or no effect on mortality in HIV-negative people with tuberculosis (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.6; four trials, 1219 participants, low quality evidence), or HIV-positive people who are not taking antiretroviral therapy (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.23; three trials, 1429 participants, moderate quality evidence). There is insufficient evidence to know if supplementation improves cure (no trials), treatment completion (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.04; one trial, 302 participants, very low quality evidence), or the proportion of people who remain sputum positive during the first eight weeks (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.35; two trials, 1020 participants, very low quality evidence). However, supplementation may have little or no effect on weight gain during treatment (data not pooled; five trials, 2940 participants, low quality evidence), and no studies have assessed the effect on quality of life.Plasma levels of vitamin A appear to increase following initiation of tuberculosis treatment regardless of supplementation. In contrast, supplementation probably does improve plasma levels of zinc, vitamin D, vitamin E, and selenium, but this has not been shown to have clinically important benefits. Of note, despite multiple studies of vitamin D supplementation in different doses, statistically significant benefits on sputum conversion have not been demonstrated.
There is currently insufficient research to know whether routinely providing free food, or energy supplements improves tuberculosis treatment outcomes, but it probably improves weight gain in some settings.Although blood levels of some vitamins may be low in people starting treatment for active tuberculosis, there is currently no reliable evidence that routinely supplementing above recommended daily amounts has clinical benefits.