The relationship between metabolic risk and time spent sitting, standing and stepping has not been well established. The present study aimed to determine associations of objectively measured time spent siting, standing and stepping, with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
A cross-sectional study of healthy non-smoking Glasgow postal workers, n=111 (55 office-workers, 5 women, and 56 walking/delivery-workers, 10 women), who wore activPAL physical activity monitors for seven days. Cardiovascular risks were assessed by metabolic syndrome categorisation and 10-y PROCAM risk.
Mean(s.d.) age was 40(8) years, BMI 26.9(3.9)kg/m(2) and waist circumference 95.4(11.9)cm. Mean(s.d.) HDL-cholesterol 1.33(0.31), LDL-cholesterol 3.11(0.87), triglycerides 1.23(0.64)mmol/l and 10-y PROCAM risk 1.8(1.7)%. Participants spent mean(s.d.) 9.1(1.8)h/d sedentary, 7.6(1.2)h/d sleeping, 3.9(1.1)h/d standing and 3.3(0.9)h/d stepping, accumulating 14,708(4,984)steps/d in 61(25) sit-to-stand transitions per day. In univariate regressions-adjusting for age, sex, family history of CHD, shift worked, job type and socio-economic status-waist circumference (P=0.005), fasting triglycerides (P=0.002), HDL-cholesterol (P=0.001) and PROCAM-risk (P=0.047) were detrimentally associated with sedentary time. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for sleep, standing and stepping in stepwise regression models. However, after further adjustment for waist circumference, the associations were not significant. Compared to those without the metabolic syndrome, participants with the metabolic syndrome were significantly less active-fewer steps, shorter stepping duration and longer time sitting. Those with no metabolic syndrome features walked >15 000 steps/day, or spent >7 h/day upright.
Longer time spent in sedentary posture is significantly associated with higher CHD risk and larger waist circumference.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 31 January 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.30.