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Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness

Overview of attention for article published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, December 2014
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#15 of 45,307)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (99th percentile)

Readers on

mendeley
417 Mendeley
citeulike
3 CiteULike
Title
Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness
Published in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, December 2014
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1418490112
Pubmed ID
Authors

Anne-Marie Chang, Daniel Aeschbach, Jeanne F. Duffy, Charles A. Czeisler, Chang A, Aeschbach D, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA

Abstract

In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength-enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 741 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 417 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 13 3%
United Kingdom 9 2%
Spain 6 1%
Germany 4 <1%
Australia 3 <1%
Portugal 3 <1%
Japan 3 <1%
France 2 <1%
Mexico 2 <1%
Other 14 3%
Unknown 358 86%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 80 19%
Researcher 75 18%
Student > Bachelor 74 18%
Student > Master 57 14%
Student > Postgraduate 31 7%
Other 100 24%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 95 23%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 84 20%
Psychology 70 17%
Computer Science 25 6%
Neuroscience 23 6%
Other 120 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1909. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 24 June 2017.
All research outputs
#304
of 7,943,431 outputs
Outputs from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#15
of 45,307 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#14
of 239,012 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
#1
of 960 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,943,431 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 45,307 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 23.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 239,012 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 960 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.